Phytochemical and antioxidant properties of methanolic extracts of pulp, seed, leaf and stem bark of velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense) plant

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  • July 9, 2019
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Velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense) is a tall tropical fruit bearing tree belonging to the genus: Leguminosae. It has small edible fruit with brown hard inedible shell. It grows in the savanna region of West Africa and is widely spread in Nigeria. This uncultivated and underutilized plant has been identified to possess several ethnomedicinal and pharmacological properties. However, scientific evidences to prove its effectiveness for most of the claims are unavailable. The present study was carried out to determine the phytochemical and antioxidant properties of the various parts (pulp, stem bark, seed and leaf) of the plant using standard laboratory procedures. The tree sample for this experiment was obtained from Ota, in Ogun State, Nigeria. From the results, the phytochemical composition includes: 25.82 – 48.10% saponin, 7.59 – 23.06% tannin, 12.73 – 17.33% phenol, 9.78 25.41% steroid, 12.04 – 47.64% flavonoids, 19.06 – 25.66% terpenoids, 22.35 – 45.63% cardiac glycoside, and 85.36 – 106.21% vitamin C. The four extracts showed a concentration dependent increase in 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activities with maxima at 100µg/ml. The values ranged from 71.96 – 77.80% for DPPH and 75.70 – 80.52% for NO relative to ascorbic acid at 83.80% and 85.95% respectively. Velvet tamarind exhibited good phytochemical and antioxidant properties for its acclaimed ethnomedicinal properties. However, further research is necessary on the pulp and seed of this underutilized medicinal plant.

Keywords: Velvet tamarind, Leguminosae, ethnomedicinal plant, antioxidants, phytochemical.